Patriots Block a Tory Army
Type: Hidden History
Moore’s campsite is on land owned by the Fayetteville Public Works Commission, behind the Rockfish Creek Water Reclamation Plant. While the city’s security concerns are valid, the site’s location seems conducive to a history park reached via fenced corridor.
The marker indicates the approximate location of Moore’s earthworks, according to one source.
Six months before the Declaration of Independence was signed, the British government had already lost control of the Province of North Carolina. Royal Gov. Josiah Martin had been chased out of New Bern and was living on a ship off the mouth of the Cape Fear River. At Martin’s suggestion, two British armies were converging there by sea to take it back, and Martin called for loyal volunteers to join them.
Nearly 1,600 men gathered in Cross Creek (modern Fayetteville) in February of 1776 under command of a British Army officer, Brig. Gen. Donald MacDonald. They prepared to march toward Brunswick Town, which is on this side of the Cape Fear River near modern Southport. However, Patriots (“Whigs”) had intercepted Martin’s January message to Loyalists, and were converging from across the state to foil Martin’s plans.
The most direct route to Brunswick Town crossed Rockfish Creek near the river, using a wooden bridge. A force of 1,000 men, backed by five cannons, camped there under the command of Col. James Moore from Thursday, February 15, to the 21st, to block the Tories’ path.
They built fortifications facing the creek, and waited. On Monday the 19th, a messenger arrived from MacDonald carrying a flag of truce. The Tory recruits had moved within four miles. MacDonald included copies of the call from Martin to create Loyalist militias, and MacDonald’s own order assuring those who joined that their families would be protected. His message said he assumed the Patriot soldiers had not seen them, because otherwise they would have joined the Loyalists! He gave Moore until noon the next day to do so, and if not, MacDonald said he would take “‘the necessary steps for the support of regal authority.’”
Moore, stalling for time while Whig forces gathered, sent back a vaguely negative response, but said he would consult with his officers. At the appointed time the next day, he declined, also suggestively including a copy of the oath of allegiance to the Continental Congress. MacDonald, expecting that response, had prepared his troops to withdraw immediately. They went back to Campbelltown (also now part of Fayetteville) to cross the Cape Fear there. He hoped to circle by way of Wilmington to Brunswick Town, thus avoiding the Whigs.
Learning of this the next day, Moore marched south in the direction you are facing to block the crossing at Elizabethtown. After another militia unit claimed MacDonald’s next-best route, he took the road that led the Loyalists to defeat at Moore’s Creek Bridge on February 27. Moore’s force arrived too late to participate, other than helping to capture the scattering Tories. But the delay it caused here contributed greatly to that victory by allowing time for the Patriots to collect more troops.
Unlike the ordered rows of tents in regular army camps, in Moore’s camp you would have seen men in everyday clothes spread out unevenly in both directions from the road. They slept in the open in the cold weather for six days to defend their new independence. Somewhere their horses were tied off; these were not cavalrymen, but they traveled on horseback.
Five years later the British Army of Lt. Gen. Lord Charles Cornwallis marched across the bridge coming from Cross Creek, seeking the safety of the British garrison at Wilmington to recover from the Battle of Guilford Court House. The procession on Sunday, April 1, 1780, would have taken around six hours. Many wounded were in the wagons that passed by.
The fortifications were said by someone who claimed to have seen them in the 20th Century to be about 60 yards from the mouth of Rockfish Creek at the Cape Fear, connecting the two streams. Given the fact the creek curves to parallel the river for a short distance (zoom in on the Locations map to see), it seems likely they arced across from the creek’s last curve. This suggests the Wilmington Road still followed the riverbank at the time.
 Rankin, Hugh F., ‘The Moore’s Creek Bridge Campaign, 1776’, The North Carolina Historical Review, 30.1 (1953), 23–60.
 Oates, John A., The Story of Fayetteville and the Upper Cape Fear (Fayetteville, N.C.: Woman’s Club of Fayetteville, 1950) <https://archive.org/details/storyoffayettevi00john>.
 In addition to the other footnoted sources, “Stop” information comes from one of two guidebooks; NCpedia; the online essay for the relevant North Carolina Highway Marker; and related Sight pages (see “About Sources“).